Hardware and Software – A Basic Introduction

The use of Internet services are one of the most dominant reasons for having personal computers and laptops. In order to operate and especially to maintain and troubleshoot your computer, it’s important to understand basic functions and terminology for computers. All of the fundamental components of computing are either hardware or software.

*Hardware *
Hardware is all the physical components of a computer-the monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, and tower (or, on a laptop, the base, keyboard, and display screen) are all hardware. Other pieces of hardware can be added, changed, or removed after buying the basic components. Although hardware is the things you can see, you do have hardware parts that you can’t see, because they are connected or installed inside the computer tower. This is called internal hardware. External hardware is usually plugged into the back of the tower and is internal hardware. Here are more examples of hardware:

*CDs and DVDs-the physical plastic disc is hardware that stores software programs to run on your computer.
* CD drives and burners-for playing or recording information on CD’s.
* Modems-dial-up, cable, and DSL all require a modem (dial-up modems are often internal, but can be sold as external devices
* Wireless router-this device can be attached to a broadband modem to convert digital signal to wireless, so that you can connect to the Internet without having a cord plugged into the computer.
* Wireless card/network adapter- Usually internal, this component makes connecting wirelessly to broadband services possible, can also be bought and attached externally.
* Ipods, smartphones, Iphones, cellphones, blackberries-these devices would also be considered hardware, especially since they are often connected to the computer and can be used to connect to the Internet.

Software is everything you can’t physically touch. It’s the programs and applications that make up everything that displays on the screen, enables the hardware to run and communicate with each other, and performs tasks. Without software, your computer would just be a complicated pile of metal and plastic.

There are basically two types of software: system software and application software. System software is what makes your computer function and controls background processes-most of which you do not need to control or might not even know about. Application software, or applications, is everything you use to complete your tasks. Here are some examples:
* Microsoft Office Suite-Word, Excel, and Outlook are all applications, and so are similar programs like WordPerfect or OpenOffice.
* Web browsers-Internet Explorer, Firefox, and MSN Explorer are just a few examples.
* Games, Calculators, Calendars, Wizards-well, everything on the All Programs list!
* Antivirus programs, Spyware scanners, Registry cleaners, etc.
*Music players like Windows Media Player and RealPlayer

Software is available in all sizes and styles to perform almost any imaginable tasks or form of entertainment. You can usually download them from the Internet, purchase it on CD’s in stores, and often come stored on a CD accompanied with hardware purchases.

Knowing the difference between software and hardware and how they work is the first step to keeping your computer in good shape (e.g., knowing how and when to upgrade it) and to troubleshoot basic problems (determining the cause of the problem-is it hardware or software related?).

Opportunities in Computer Hardware and Networking

Computer hardware refers to the various physical components that make up a computer. For example, the motherboard, processor, hard drives, RAM (Random Access Memory) Modules, printer, etc. Networking is linking one system or a group of systems with another system or group of systems. Networking is done to facilitate sharing of data and information. A lot of technical knowledge is required to be a professional hardware and networking engineer. India is home to some of the major Information Technology (IT) majors. Such companies constantly require qualified hardware and networking engineers to maintain their systems. To cater to this demand numerous Computer Hardware and Networking Institutes provide the technical education and certification at the successful completion of the course. All these institutes claim to have their own unique way of grooming a student. Besides imparting technical education these institutes also groom their students in personality development and improve their soft skills. One is assured of a job on completion of the course as most of these institutes now a day’s provide a 100% job guarantee.

The service providers of all wireless networks, telecommunication companies, etc are faced with the challenge of keeping in pace with the fast changing technology of radio-frequencies to be successful in the telecommunications world. One needs to offer better services to ensure a broader customer base and continued patronage. Besides planning to expand the network, one needs to carry out regular maintenance and keep looking for better means of optimization of the existing network. RF (Radio Frequency) drive test is a procedure for carrying out an evaluation of a Radio frequency network. It tests and analysis several aspects of a radio frequency network like, the coverage, availability of the system, capacity of the network, call quality, etc. one needs to be al least have a diploma or degree in electronics/ electronics and telecommunication/ computer science/ information technology to be eligible for a specialization course of diploma in RF Drive Test. After successful completion of the course, one can look forward to be employed with telecommunication, wireless broadcasting companies as a survey engineer or drive test engineer.

With growing penetration of technology in everyday life, it is becoming pertinent for every enterprise to regularly train their employees for enhancing their workplace skills and thus being more competent. Lots of companies proved this Enterprises Training Services. These training sessions are tailor made for the demands of a particular enterprise. The training services covers almost every sector of an enterprise which includes area like R & D, marketing, accounts, human resources sectors, sales, accounts, manufacturing, etc. With the advent of better technology the training methods have also included some modern concepts like role play, gaming scenarios, voice-over, videos, virtual trainer, etc.

Learn Hardware and Design Your Commercial Product

I am certain the first question in everybody’s mind is: “Why should I learn this tiresome hardware design in my spare time? I like to listen music, to play games, and to eat pizza. I just want to relax!”

There is absolutely noting wrong with listening good music and eating pizza in your spare time, but… Living our life is, unfortunately, harder and more demanding with each passing day. If you have a good job today, you also have 75% chances to lose it, tomorrow. This is the new trend in our social life: jobs are not secure anymore. Even worse; if you do manage to “keep” a job for sometime, you could discover, after ten years of dedication and hard-work, you didn’t manage to set aside your 100000 $ “safe cash buffer”. Realistically, our life today means a permanent search for the next job, a never-ending and terrifying resume work, and also an acute lack of sufficient money for anything.

Our society is polarized into employers and employees; between the two, being an employee it is far tougher! Some time ago a manager was required to know how to work with many, psychically different employees; today, it is the employee who must know how to “deal” with the managers. More often people retire and they have to sell their homes, because they cannot afford continuously increasing costs of living–no, Sir; not anymore. Well, think ahead tiger.

Now, which is the right way to become an employer? If you want–mind this, please: only if you want to–you could start working on becoming an employer today, and hardware design is one (important) way that leads to building your own commercial product and your future business. Besides, it will also increase your chances of employment, so… there are only benefits ahead for you. Please note, our entire social activity it is strongly–if not totally–dependent on hardware, firmware, and software technologies.

The first thing you should know about hardware design is, it doesn’t work by itself–well, not much. Hardware it is driven by firmware and/or software most of the times. This complicates things a little, but not too much–don’t worry about this. Now, let’s detail the action plan, a bit. The first thing you need to do is, start with a reasonable life-plan. For example, you could decide in ten years from now you are going to start your “J J Hardtronics Technologies Ltd.” business. Ten years is a good time-buffer, in which you will learn everything you need to know about hardware, firmware, and software design. However, please be aware the most important thing, during these ten years, is to discover your future commercial product!

There are millions of good commercial products waiting to be discovered, and do not look at the high-end technological monsters like cell-phones; this market is so fiercely driven by competition that the best thing is to stay away from it. This doesn’t mean you cannot design a good product for the cell-phones industry if you want to. A quick example is a cell-phone utility software program, or a game.

Truth is, the most beneficial applications are the industrial ones. There are thousands of industrial sensors that may be embedded into nice applications; a quick example is the acceleration sensor, or the one that measures the O2 concentration in water. You could design commercial motor-drivers, particularly for brushless DC or steppers motors. Other promising applications are: designing an instructive toy; you could break into the display-signs industry; or you could start building light-organs if you are a true music lover. The analog light-organs were a mandatory accessory in the 60s and 70s; without one, you simply couldn’t understand music, because you missed the related visual analog equivalent–please, take this last one just as a personal opinion. (The right way to relate colored light to music is: blue for low frequencies produced by the bass-guitar or drum, then green for solo-guitars and normal organ notes, red for voice, and finally yellow for the highest and most delicate frequencies which few people manage to hear.)

I have seen an automotive coolant sensor controller selling very well for 35 $, and it contained only 2 transistors and few resistors; a temperature transducer was efficiently sold for 20 $ and it contained only resistors! A friend of mine has sold for half a million dollars the license of a tiny, intelligent controller for boilers. Please note, he was a beginner designer, and the application itself was nothing past beginning hardware design level. Of course, my friend was very lucky to find the right people who needed that particular application, and who were willing to pay handsomely for it. This is in fact the difficult problem: finding the right and the needed commercial product, and this is why I said you should allocate ten good years to research the market, or to find the opportunity. Sure, you could discover even ten commercial products in ten years–the more they are, the better it is!

So, the need to become an employer and of improving your skills are sufficiently strong motivations to start learning hardware design. You could still be unclear about why hardware design in particular; why not firmware, or even software design? This is true, and you could do it anyway you want; however, starting with hardware design it is particularly beneficial. First of all, hardware is the beginning of the hardware-firmware-software chain, and it is best to start everything from the very beginning, one step at a time. Secondly, hardware design helps building your commercial product as an independent unit, or as a perfectly contained application. Next, the range of beneficial hardware applications it is way larger, and the competition is a bit less brutal, when compared to firmware and software. On the other hand, hardware design is going to lead you, naturally, to firmware and software design. My belief is, starting with hardware design it is the best method of learning, because you take everything from ground up.

All right, I am certain you are motivated enough by now. Your next question is: “How do I do this?” You see, this is in fact the easy part! Incidentally, you could start by visiting my home site, Corollary Theorems. Have no fears, my friend; you are going to discover that hardware, firmware and software design are very easy to learn, and they are even fun!

Little relaxation in your spare time it is very good and quite necessary. Although you do not hear much about this, lately, when I was a bit younger we were encouraged to experiment with “active relaxation”. This means, by reading an instructive, useful book, you could get the same level of relaxation as when listening music, or playing PC games. However, the lecture of a good book is going to enrich your level of knowledge, and you will gain valuable skills, instead of just “killing time”. This is the theory behind the active relaxation concept. Nice, aye?